A speech disorder can cause one to have the inability to speak properly and clearly. This can be seen through repeated words, stuttering, long pauses, etc. Speech disorders are just one of the various types of communication disorders. Such speech disorders can be caused by a variety of things. This includes stress, nerve damage, conditions with the nervous system, as well as brain damage. The most common disorders include apraxia, dysarthria and aphasia. Apraxia can be seen in childhood as well as adulthood. With childhood apraxia, a child is not able to use their muscles properly to portray a massage. They are not able to move their tongue or mouth in the proper way in order to make certain sounds. This can cause a child to limit how much they can talk. With adult apraxia, it is acquired and can be due to brain damage. Such brain damage can be due to certain conditions such as lack of oxygen to the brain, a brain injury or brain damage. This form of apraxia can leave gaps within their speech. As they once knew how to speak correctly, they may not be able to make it sound right consistently. They can have a hard time controlling their tongue, lips and mouth in order to make the correct sound. Such adults may have to talk slower, and in severe instances, they can no longer be able to talk. Dysarthria can occur from brain damage that results in muscle weakness. They often cannot move their mouth or tongue very well or even at all. They can speak either very slowly or very fast and often slur their words. Their voice can also sound very different due to the brain damage. Aphasia is a linguistic impairment caused by injury to the left hemisphere of the brain. They are shown to have difficulty with speaking and understanding people, as well as writing and reading. They often have hard times remembering words and thus have a hard time forming full sentences.
LSVT or the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment is a behavioral speech treatment used as a form of therapy for individuals with Parkinson’s Disease. There is a specific form of this treatment known as LSVT Loud which is used commonly to train such individuals. This program trains people to alter their voices in areas such as sound volume and pitch, as well as many other variables. The way that it works is by reshaping motor learning and neuroplasticity. Neuroplasticity describes the brain’s ability to learn again, as seen through adjusting sensory feedback. This can be so that individuals with Parkinson’s Disease can realize view the volume of their voices being at an appropriate range, as compared to those that are “normal”. The program’s purpose is to get the patient’s voice volume up to a healthy, normal level so that he or she can communicate with other people. It focuses to improve vocal loudness, intonation, and articulation. Such treatments are being performed both in-person and online.
For this month’s bog, I have read an article called, “Codeswitching in Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment.”
In this article, the concept of code-switching was explored in depth. When it comes to children with a specific language impairment, code-switching can be used for a variety of reasons during conversation, some of which would be to facilitate conversation or to provide an expression that is better understood in the other language (Gutierrez-Clellen et. al., 2009). It is quite the phenomenon used by bilinguals to express themselves with other bilinguals, and it is a method used to facilitate the flow of conversation. The article concluded that children with a specific language impairment are able to code-switch typically despite their impairment (Gutierrez-Clellen et. al., 2009). This conclusion demonstrates that code-switching is indeed an exceptional capability that enables communication.
Code-switching involves the combination of two languages in a syntactic way, where the main language is the matrix language while the other language is known as the embedded language(Gutierrez-Clellen et. al., 2009). In other words, we can see the bilingual’s first language used as the dominant language, and the language being added into the dominant language as the embedded language (Gutierrez-Clellen et. al., 2009). In order to evaluate the code-switching and determine whether it is grammatically correct, the embedded language is examined to see if it’s being placed in the correct grammatical order (Gutierrez-Clellen et. al., 2009). For instance, in the Spanish language the adjective is placed after the noun, not before; if an individual is code-switching grammatically correct, the adjective will be placed after the noun (Gutierrez-Clellen et. al., 2009). According to the article, there is limited research on the code-switching utterances produced by children with a specific language impairment. Nevertheless, when it comes to word retrieval, children with a specific language impairment may code-switch to retrieve words during conversation (Gutierrez-Clellen et. al., 2009). It was also stated that children with specific language disorder display atypical code-switching compared to children without this impairment, but their code-switching is also not drastically different from that of typically developing children (Gutierrez-Clellen et. al., 2009). Comparisons were also made between typically developing adult literature and children with specific language impairment. It was concluded that at times there was no disordered code-switching present for children with specific language impairment (Gutierrez-Clellen et. al., 2009). It was also observed that, though children with specific language impairment demonstrate grammatical deficits, they were able to mix both languages with typical code-switching behavior (Gutierrez-Clellen et. al., 2009). Therefore, children with specific language impairment should not be discouraged from code-switching, because they could be using this technique to further develop competence in both of their languages(Gutierrez-Clellen et. al., 2009). The use of code-switching in children with specific language impairment is beneficial, and should not be considered an impairment. Instead code-switching should be seen as a positive means of communication that is used by children with specific language impairment in both a typical and non-typical way.
|Gutiérrez-Clellen, V. F., Cereijido, G. S., & Leone, A. E. (2009). Codeswitching in Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment. The international journal of bilingualism : cross-disciplinary, cross-linguistic studies of language behavior, 13(1), 91–109. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006909103530|
This article is about Black ASL, which is a dialect of ASL that was developed by black people during the period of segregation. The girl in the video claims that they are similar but the same difference is that BASL has “seasoning”. I definitely understand what she means as for signing in BASL one would use both hands as opposed to only one for ASL. She compares BASL to what AAVE or ebonics is to “formal” English, stating that they both have terms and nuances that are more commonly used in the Black community. It’s interesting to learn that just how spoken English differs in what part of the country you live in, so does sign language, including BASL. This fact highlights how your environment heavily influences the way in which you communicate.