The Use of Evidence Based Practice in the Health Setting

In the spirit of preparing the annotated bibliography, I’ve decided some of the strongest articles I read regarding the topic of self efficacy in health professions. Overall a lot of the studies I found agreed that self efficacy is a strong measure of learning outcomes for students as well as a determiner for better diagnoses and efficiency of workflow for clinicians and other professionals.

The aim of the first study I looked at was to examine the role of work-related self-efficacy and the relationship between organizational context variables and social worker’s perspectives on evidence based practice. The motivation behind this study comes from previous works which found that social worker attitudes toward the adoption of evidence based practice were important to the implementation of said practices. Though there have been moves towards the implementation of evidence based practice, in the field of social work, there has been hesitation and many practicing social workers have not consistently incorporated evidence based practice. Organization context variables (such as no access to equipment and work-related data and resources) have served as a barrier towards the implementation of evidence based practice. 

The researchers used a convenience sampling method. Their sample size was 578 social workers in Israel. Data was collected via a questionnaire. The independent variables which were assessed in the questionnaire were: role ambiguity, accessibility of work related data and resources, workplace social support and work-related self-efficacy. The dependent variable was attitudes of evidence based practice. All questions were modeled off other survey questions. 

The study revealed, as the researchers had predicted, that there was a positive relationship  between self-efficacy and more positive attitudes towards evidence based practice. Out of the four independent variables, role ambiguity was found to be the most significant contribution in explaining self-efficacy in social workers. This additionally impacted the social workers implementation of evidence based practice. Some study limitations include the exclusion of various other organizational variables such as workload etc. 

The aim of the second study was to analyze the effect of evidence based practice perceptions on future implementation in pre-registration nursing students. The motivation for studying this question comes from the established importance of evidence based practice in clinician and health fields. The use and knowledge of evidence based practice in the nursing field has served as a tool for improving patient outcomes. Additionally, globally, it has been found that the rate of evidence based practice implementation by nursing students is low which potentially presents a problem when it comes to bettering patient outcomes. 

This study was conducted in Israel. The researchers surveyed 148 pre-registration nursing students via a self-administered questionnaire.  The questionnaire was based on an already existing evidence based practice questionnaire. Additional topics surveyed were: academic motivation, information literacy self-efficacy, and socio-demographic data. 

This study concluded that there was a significant relationship across all the factors they surveyed for. Additionally, the researchers found that there was a positive association between evidence based practice and evidence based practice perspectives. They claim that such results potentially indicate that the development of academic information literacy skills in students can promote both critical thinking in the clinical setting as well as encourage the use of evidence based practice. One limitation of this study is that the group surveyed was exclusively from one institution, and could be worth exploring more academic institutions in the area of nursing.

References:

Amit-Aharon, A., Melnikov, S., & Warshawski, S. (2020). The effect of evidence-based practice perception, information literacy self-efficacy, and academic motivation on nursing students’ future implementation of evidence-based practice. Journal of Professional Nursing, 36(6), 497–502. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2020.04.001

Kagan, M. (2022). Social Workers’ Attitudes toward Evidence-Based Practice: The Mediating Role of Work-Related Self-Efficacy. Social Work Research, 46(3), 217–228. https://doi.org/10.1093/swr/svac018

Morphophonological Variation in Haitian Creole

As part of my research I had read an article written by Anne-Jose, Jason F Sigel, and Albert Valdman titled “Morphophonological Variation in Haitian Creole”. It talks about the different morphological variations of Haitian creole in two different geographical regions of Haiti. The regions that were the main focus were Cape- Haitian and Port au Prince both cities have high populations of Haitians living there. The article starts to talk about the different varieties of Haitian creole that are used in Haiti which are Standard Haitian Creole (SHC) and Northern Haitian Creole (NHC) and which are used more often by people living in Cape Haitian. What I discovered reading the analysis of SHC and NHC is that SHC is the written norm based on the speech monolinguals of the capital area in which the front and syllable /r/ is absent which has become popular in the rest of the country.  

Based on that information the researchers wanted to observe who from Cape Haitian is using SHC more than NHC in their daily speech. In which, the researchers are focusing on the third-person singular pronouns li/l (In which happens after a consonant) and capois i/y (which happens after the vowel) to see which one is preferred to be used by the general public. The researchers observed three subcategories to make their analysis the three subcategories include location, age group, and sex. What was discovered from the results was that many speakers who use SHC that live in Cape Haitian prefer to use capois /i/ went to a subject position rather than SHC. However, they prefer to use the SHC variant when it’s after the consonant. When it is the object position SHC and NHC are used interchangeably. Also, it was discovered that there are not a lot of people who speak capois in Cape Haitian. Most people like women and children and teenagers who go to school prefer using the SHC variation while men prefer to speak NHC. This is due to many women traveling outside Cape Haitian and into the city of port au prince in which they are more exposed to the SHC variant. Along with the children who go to school they are taught with the SHC variant. Therefore based on this study it can be said that in Cape Haitian majority of the people prefer to speak SHC rather than NHC due to the fact they are more exposed to the variant than NHC. I found this article very interesting due to my family being from Haiti. My mother side of the family is from Cape meanwhile my father side is from Port au Prince. Ive now seen myself being more observant in how they communicate to each other to see if I can spot out any variation differences when they speak creole.

Work Cited:

https://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1318&context=pwpl

PHONEMIC AND ORTHOGRAPHIC REALIZATIONS OF ‘R’ AND ‘W’ IN HAITIAN CREOLE

As part of my research, I’ve read an article talking about the different variations of Haitian Creole. In which I learned more about SHC (Standard Haitian Creole ) and NHC (Northern Haitian Creole). One of the main differences was the use of /r/ and /w/. In the SHC variant it does not use /r/ but in the NHC variant it is used interchangeably with /w/. To further explored this I’ve read an article titled Phonemic and Orthographic Realizations of “R” and “W” in Haitian Creole. In the article written by Christopher Hagen and Jeffery Allen, they collected data from different writings like the bible, websites, training manuals, and published speeches. Along with that, they collected speech samples from people located in Port au Prince, New York, Paris, and Pittsburgh. From those speech and writing samples they discovered that the phonemes /r/ and /w/ are used interchangeably and /w/ is an allophone of /r/. To further elaborate the article talked about how /w/ would appear before rounded vowels like (/o/,/u/) and /r/ would appear with non-rounded vowels like (/e/ /a/,/i/). It was noted that in the article written by Hagen and Allen they also quoted Valdman and Massieux in which they stated “/w/ and /r/ became allographs due to the progressive and regressive conditioning by the labial and non-labial vowels; in which they used the example of /ri/ vs /wi/ however even though they are minimal pairs they still have semantics differences.” (Allen, Hogan 1597). Based on the data that was collected it was observed that Norther Haitian Creole (NHC) use more of /w/ than /r/ especially those who mainly stay in the rural area of Haiti. Also, women are more likely to use /r/ since it’s closer to the french uvular /r/. Overall, I thoroughly enjoyed reading this article, and I’m excited to explore this topic more for my research.